Fred Astaire danced with the best dancing stars of classic Hollywood. And while they danced with him they were dressed by some of the best studio costume designers. His dance partners have included Ginger Rogers, who he danced  with in several movies: Rita Hayworth;  Eleanor Powell; Judy Garland; Vera-Ellen; Cyd Charisse, Leslie Caron; and Audrey Hepburn, and he even partnered with Gene Kelly in Ziegfeld Follies. 

Fred & Adele Astaire in Smiles (Broadway) 1930-1931 Photo courtesy Photofest

Fred Astaire was born to entertain. He and his older sister Adele began a Vaudeville act when he was 7. Fred met George Gershwin in 1916 and they remained friends for the rest of George’s short life. The Astaires were on Broadway by 1917. They performed in several musicals that took them to London. There, Adele was wooed and wed by Lord Charles Cavendish. Along with his natural grace Fred picked up the impeccable style of the British upper class. But now he was without a partner and his act fell apart.  He managed to find himself in another successful Broadway musical, Gay Divorce (1932-1933)with dancing partner Clare Luce, with Cole Porter’s music including the catchy number, Night and Day. After closing the show he went to Hollywood with a contract at RKO Pictures.

David O. Selznick was the head of production at the time, with Pandro Berman a leading producer. Fred’s first screen test for the studio didn’t bring down the house. According to Fred Astaire’s later memory, it summarized him as, “Can’t act. Slightly bald. Also dances.” But all Fred needed was a dance partner. Yet RKO’s first role for him wasn’t ready so he was loaned out to MGM for a role starring as himself with a dance partner not quite up to the task: Joan Crawford, in Dancing Lady (1933).  But lightning sparked when Fred was paired with Ginger Rogers in RKO’s Flying Down to Rio. Ironically, the future dancing dynamos were not even top-billed. The stars of the movie were Dolores Del Rio and Gene Raymond. Fred and Ginger had smaller parts, especially Ginger, but they smoked the floor when they danced to “The Carioca.” They stole the show, as they say in show business.  Dolores Del Rio was a big star at the time and used her favorite designer Irene (Lentz Gibbins) to design her wardrobe for the film. Walter Plunkett was RKO’s costume designer and he designed Ginger Rogers’ costumes and those of the chorines.

Flying Down to Rio. Photo courtesy Photofest

RKO realized they had something special with Fred and Ginger, and when Broadway’s Gay Divorce was turned into RKO’s 1935 film The Gay Divorcee (a gay divorce could not possibly happen according to the censor), the studio realized they had gold. This movie musical launched something different: Fred insisted on the cameras shooting Ginger and him dancing full bodied cross the studio floor. No jump cuts or edits of close-up foot-work or head shots would be used until they were finished. Plus they smiled as they danced, looking like they were having the greatest time.  Deep in the Depression, this was a winning combination for the audience. Fred’s early screen test meant nothing now, especially with his chemistry with Ginger Rogers. As someone said about the duo, “He gave her class and she gave him sex.”

Their dancing was infectious to look at, a symbol of the romance that was always bubbling as part of the plot. And a plot that became a standard with RKO’s Fred and Ginger movies. They meet seemingly by accident, and while there’s attraction, things go wrong and keep going wrong until they finally unite at the very end.

Walter Plunkett designed Gay Divorcee, and with his first two RKO movies he set the pattern for her dance dresses: a tight fit at the waist and bodice that showed off her gorgeous figure, and a flowing skirt that twirled as she danced with Fred.

Walter Plunkett’s costume sketch below shows the  costume worn by the chorines (the white version, there was also a black). The ruffles at the elbows were brought up to the shoulders.

By the time  Fred and Ginger’s third film Top Hat (1935was being made, Walter Plunkett had left RKO due to a salary dispute. New York fashion designer Bernard Newman had been brought on and was given the choice assignments and that didn’t please Walter. But Newman’s designs for Ginger became more eye-popping, and she became more involved in the designs. Newman’s famous light blue “Feathers” gown for Top Hat  was a good example. It was made of silk satin with ostrich feathers at the skirt and shoulders. It became a bit of a battle between the Astaire camp and the Rogers camp as to whether it would remain in the movie. The issue, unresolved to the end, was how to keep the feathers from coming loose when Ginger danced with Fred. Even after some hand-re-sewing of individual ostrich plumes, they can still be seen flying about in the “Dancing Cheek-to-Cheek” number, which irritated Fred to no end. But what a magnificent scene. My great-aunt was irritated too. As the head cutter-fitter at RKO wardrobe, she didn’t have to do the sewing, but she had to supervise the process. Fred made light of the whole matter afterwards. He made a present to Ginger of a gold feather for her charm bracelet.


Top Hat (1935) Courtesy Photofest

Follow the Fleet followed Top Hat, and Bernard Newman followed his knock-out gown for Ginger with another one. The stellar gown in this movie was made entirely of silver bugle beads, trimmed with a fox collar. The gown weighed about 30 lbs. The bugle beaded skirt was translucent so you could see her figure against the light. But once again, Fred was not happy. The bell-shaped sleeves were heavy too, and when she twirled around in early takes her sleeves would slap up against his cheeks.  But again, the resulting “Let’s Face the Music and Dance” Irving Berlin number has to be their most beautiful (below). It was shot in in one take.


Swing Time followed, which many consider the best of the Fred and Ginger movies (though closely matched by Top Hat).  Bernard Newman again designed Ginger’s wardrobe although there were no over the top gowns. At this point she didn’t need them to get noticed in a movie, as all eyes were  frequently on her. The usual plot-line of the rough meeting, sudden attraction, then roller coaster road to a relationship is layed out again. And there are the dances – always sublime.


Swing Time (1936) Photo courtesy Photofest

When they first meet, Ginger is a dance instructor and Fred pretends not to know how to dance (at first). For the scene she wears a simple black dress with white pleated Peter Pan collar with bow. The full pleated skirt is designed to flow as she dances.


Swing Time (1936) Photo courtesy Photofest

The climactic dance is the “Never Gonna Dance” number, Jerome Kern and Dorothy Field’s song written for the movie. Bernard Newman’s design for Ginger was a beautiful flowing backless  decollete gown with criss-cross straps decorated with rhinestones. This gown too is translucent, as was the detachable cape. The dance number was the highlight of their partnership.


Fred and Ginger made Shall We Dance in 1937 and Carefree in 1938 but their movies weren’t as popular as before. America was slowly coming out of the Depression and movie audience expectations were changing. A theater magazine had just listed several actors as “Box office poison,” and among them were big stars like Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Katharine Hepburn, Marlene Dietrich, and Fred Astaire. Bernard Newman had just left RKO. While his designs were stunning, he couldn’t keep up with the pace of work at a Hollywood studio. Howard Greer, formerly of Paramount Pictures filled in to design Ginger’s wardrobe for Carefree. He had opened his own fashion business in Beverly Hills and was doing rather well. After he finished this film Edward Stevenson, with years of experience going back to First National, assumed most of the design duties at RKO. A Howard Greer costume sketch for Ginger in Carefree is shown below. Fred and Ginger’s final movie at RKO was The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle. As the studio wanted, this would be a departure from their usual boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy gets girl back story. It was based on the real story of the once very famous dance team of the Castles.  But problems began early. Vernon had already died and Irene wanted the movie to be very exact in its portrayal of them – down to story line, dance steps, costumes, and their likeness. It’s still a mystery who designed the costumes. Walter Plunkett, who had come back to RKO, stated he bowed out when Irene Castle became so rigid in her demands. The costume sketches themselves are unlike any done by the regular sketch artists at RKO. In any event, the movie was not a success and while Ginger stayed on at RKO to win an Oscar for Kitty Foyle, Fred’s contract was up and he moved on.

Howard Greer costume sketch for Ginger Rogers in Carefree

Fred was not quite the box office poison the article made him out to be. MGM, Paramount, and Columbia all wanted him to do movies for them. MGM came in first with Broadway Melody of 1940, made in 1939, which was followed later by a long term contract. In this movie he more than met his match in tap -dancing: the incredible Eleanor Powell. When the two danced in the Begin the Beguine number, it was introduced years later by Frank Sinatra for That’s Entertainment!  He stated,  “You can wait around and hope, but you’ll never see the likes of this again.” But In the photo below, they dance in Eleanor’s favorite, the “Jukebox” tap dance number. They are both having fun with this one.

The costume designer for this film was Adrian, and while all Eleanor’s costumes move well while she dances ( and they don’t bother Fred) he adds whimsy with the Cossack accents.

Fred moved to Paramount Pictures where in 1942 he made what would become a classic,  Holiday Inn (along with it’s sequel)or as it was fully titled: Irving Berlin’s Holiday Inn. Here he was joined by Bing Crosby and Marjorie Reynolds. And while Fred dances Marjorie Reynolds around the floor (at one point on the floor when he plays drunk), it’s when Bing sings “White Christmas” to Marjorie, and then they sing in duo, that music history is made.

Edith Head designed Marjorie Reynolds’ costumes. Allthough the movie was black and white one of the costumes was made of gold beads. The costume sketch below (shown with Fred as the dance partner) was modified somewhat in the film as an embroidered silk gown. The signature on the sketch is that of director Mark Sandrich.


The photo below shows Marjorie in her gold beaded gown.


Fred made a couple of movies at Columbia Pictures after talking to producer Gene Markey. He would star with the daughter of an old dancing Vaudeville friend of his, Eduardo Cansino. His daughter was Rita Cansino, now known as Rita Hayworth. Their first movie together was successful: You’ll Never Get Rich (1941) but their second movie You Were Never Lovelier (1942) was a hit.  The music was by Jerome Kern and Johnnie Mercer. Here Fred courts Rita, but her Argentine father disapproves.


The photos above and below show Fred and Rita dancing in You Were Never Lovelier. Rita’s beautiful wardrobe was designed by Irene (Lentz Gibbons), who was designing for Bulluck’s Wilshire at the time. Irene frequently freelanced for studio work for stars that demanded her services, as she had for Dolores Del Rio.  This gown had embroidered sequins at the bodice and skirt, with an illusion top. It flowed beautifully as can be seen in the bottom photo. Unfortunately, while Fred sang the “You Were Never Lovelier” song to Rita, the dance scene was cut from the final film.


Fred Astaire had achieved an enviable career in his first decade in Hollywood. But much more was yet to come. More of his films, dance partners, and their costumes is covered in Part II of this blog here







  1. Hi top hat was on recently I had have several beers zubr not english chemical rubbish suddenly got to my feet and was dancing round on the lawn fortunately it was late or the white vans might have called with the chaps with the big butterfly nets fred and ginger your the tops ever

  2. I seem to remember a dance routine where I think it was Fred Astaire, in prison stripes, dancing a tap routine I think, with a ball and chain attached to the leg of I think Ginger Rogers. Does this sound familiar to anyone?

    1. The only time I remember Fred being in prison was in “You’ll Never Get Rich,” but he was wearing an army uniform, not stripes. Unless maybe this is something from one of his TV specials?

  3. As a product of 57, my parents were great dancers, and taught me. I just wish my generation had learned ballroom dancing. Fred is my favorite, and I love any movie he danced in. The sync of Rita Hayworth and Fred to the tune Your Love is Lifting me Higher is outstanding….uplifting!!!

    1. Thanks for your comment Kate. 1957 was a great year too and that was wonderful that your parents taught you to dance. My parents were an older generation than yours and were very good dancers but they didn’t teach me.
      But yes, I think Fred Astaire was the greatest and he was paired superbly with the beautiful dancer Rita Cansino Hayworth.

  4. Fred Astaire was better than anybody. His dancing lacked nothing, There is no need to refer to my thesaurus as he was perfection. No matter with whom he dances, I find it difficult to take my eyes off him, though I must confess Eleanor was my favourite partner as she had so much zest. His solo’s were all on another level. Plaudits, also, too the dress designers who were all master’s/ mistress’s of their creations, and of course, all the magnificent ladies who wore them.

  5. All fab. dancers Ginger second, my pico for. number, she brought grace beauty smooth lines in her mover , the fast numbers not even Ginger would have pulled it off as. Rita Hayworth Ginger was mor of a tap dancer .Rita covered all. the styles Rita, # 1

  6. My comments here are strictly from a guy in the audience. There is no question in my mind the Fred Astaire was the best male dancer ever on the silver screen. One of my favorite Astaire movies is Royal Wedding which has been mostly ignored in the comments and Jane Powell, who was not mentioned in the female partner line up, did an outstanding job in a variety of dance sequences in that movie. The best male and female tap dance routine that I have ever witnessed is Fred and Eleanor Powell dancing to Begin the Beguine in Broadway Melody of 1940. In my humble opinion the best overall dance partner that Fred ever had was Rita Hayworth. Rita just flowed flawlessly with her moves.

    1. Thanks for your comments Ron. Fred Astaire was my favorite dancer, and there’s no topping the Begin the Beguine number. But there were so many great dance numbers and partners with Fred, including with
      Jane Powell. Rita Hayworth was fabulous of course, and so was Cyd Charisse. Thanks for looking in to this blog post.

    2. You are right! Even Fred Astaire himself said that Rita was his favorite dance partner. Her dancing was so free and flowing. She look like she was really enjoying what she was doing. Some of his other dance partners had something like a little stiffness. They held back Something that the audience could feel and a former dancer could perceive, as I did

  7. Lovely post on the design history associated with Astaire’s dance partners. I had the privledge of working on the conservation of the silver beaded gown from “Follow the Fleet”, which now lives at the Smithsonian. It’s not quite 50lbs, but definitely between 20 and 30! Stunning artisanal work by the RKO seamstresses.

    1. Thanks for your comment Amelia and for your work on preserving this important costume in film history. My great aunt was the head cutter-fitter at RKO in the 1930s so she supervised the work on this and many other
      costumes for Ginger Rogers and the other leading ladies of RKO. It was a clear error on my part to state the gown weighed 50 lbs, I knew better since most all the full glass-beaded gowns weighed about 30lbs. I’m happy to know the gown is at the Smithsonian.

      1. What an amazing family connection! Have you written any specific posts about the wardrobe employees of Golden Age Hollywood? While researching the Ginger Rogers dress, I found it difficult to find much scholarship on the incredible teams responsible for creating the magnificent garments we associate with the stars.

        1. Hi Amelia. I have written a blog post on the Wardrobe Department of RKO, as well as one on Walter Plunkett. Separately, I have written a book on the costume and fashion designer Adrian:
          Adrian: Silver Screen to Custom Label. But there is little information available of the wardrobe employees that actually made all of the Golden Age costumes. The designers’ were fairly well documented, at least
          most of them, but the cutters, fitters, drapers, seamstresses and embroiderers and other specialists received no credits in those days and are only occasionally named in a publicity photograph. And publishers aren’t even
          interested in the designers other than two or three. In my blog posts I’ll mention the process of fabrication in the workrooms but most of the space is devoted to the designers and stars since that is where the interest is.
          As an anecdote, I still have some of the muslin pattern pieces from my great-aunt’s RKO days with the names of the stars written on them: Katharine Hepburn; Ginger Rogers; Maureen O’Hara; Lucille Ball. etc. Thanks, Christian

          1. Hi. It was wonderful to read your comments. I too have often said a silent “thank you” to all the nameless, unsung (and probably underpaid) individuals who made these unforgettable costumes. Also loved hearing about the surviving muslin pattern pieces your aunt saved! Take good care of them.

          2. Thank you for your comment Cynthia. Yes it was a pity they didn’t credit the artisans in those days. Now the credits at the end of the movies lists everybody. It really is remarkable that she kept some of these muslins –
            NOBODY kept these. I’m glad you appreciated this.

      1. She was a terrific dancer but as a partner to Astaire she
        never came close to Gingers dancing. Nor any other
        partner he danced with. They were dancing almost ninety
        years ago and even today in 2020 we still get to see the
        magic only Astaire and Rogers created for each other and
        their audience.

        1. Thanks for your comment Elise. Fred and Ginger had a very special dancing relationship honed from their many films made together. There is no way to duplicate or recapture
          those dances other than to see the originals.

  8. Great post! My favorite gown from “You Were Never Lovelier” is the one with white appliques on the bodice and partly down the skirt. It’s used in most of the posters, lobby cards and promo shots. Shame about the sequined gown. Looking forward to Part 2 of this blog.

    1. Which movie with Rita Hayworth and Fred Astaire has a dance scene synced with “Your Love is Lifting Me Higher”? That is such an incredible u tube!!

  9. Thanks for your enlightening history of the costuming of Fred Astaire’s dance partners as well as the first half (or more) of his career. The backstories on the designers, the gowns, the career trajectories always intrigue me – and, I think, add depth to experiencing these amazing classic musicals. The Astaire/Rogers films strike me now as “visual champagne” and Ginger’s gowns in no small way added to the “fizz.”

    1. Thanks for your comment Lady Eve – an apt expression “visual champaign” and “fizz,” very appropriate to their contribution to film history and especially what they certainly added to peoples lives at the time. Of course I share your fascination with the backstory on the production of these gems. Part II will come soon.

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