Hollywood Movie Costumes



By Christian Esquevin

(This essay was written for the Exhibition Catalogue for the “Costumes from the golden Age of Hollywood” at the Brisbane Museum in 2015, based on the Nicholas Inglis collection).

In the Golden Age of Hollywood movies, movie costumes had their own golden age.  Costumes played several significant roles. They helped provide the look and texture of the movie, whether it was a historical film or a contemporary one. For the actresses and actors it helped define their role, and often defined their own star image. And in the peak of movie-going during the 1930s and 1940s, the movie studios marketed the movies themselves through the fashions seen on-screen. As more and more women were moving to cities and entering the work-force, the fashions of the movies were providing cues on how to dress. Movie costumes on leading stars were becoming so influential that even historical movies were providing fashionable ideas for daily dress. This was made easier since almost all Hollywood period costumes combined historical elements while retaining what was in fashion in the contemporary clothes. Thus current viewers could usually find something to adapt for their own wardrobe, which manufacturers were already prepared to meet the demand. The purpose of Hollywood costume design was after all not to promote historical accuracy, but to promote movies and movie-going. In reaching for this goal costume designers did remarkably well. In the Golden Age of Hollywood, the promotion of movie stars, the costumes they wore, and the movies in which they starred was a seamless operation. The studios had already heavily invested in the look of their movies, for which the fashion and sets and costumes played a large role. The particular costume and fashion styles for each studio were largely determined by its head costume designer. At MGM this was Adrian, followed by Irene, then by Helen Rose and Walter Plunkett. At Paramount there was Howard Greer followed by Travis Banton then Edith Head. Warner Brothers had Orry-Kelly and Milo Anderson. 20th Century-Fox had many designers and therefore never established a unified style. When Charles LeMaire became the Head Designer, he supervised a diverse and talented team including Travilla and Mary Wills. And Columbia had Jean Louis. Historical movies took on the look of their time periods, but contemporary films often bore the fashion stamp of strong stylists like Adrian, Travis Banton, Irene, Orry-Kelly, and Jean Louis. The movie studios did emphasize certain styles of movies based on where their audience was strongest (urban vs rural, foreign markets, etc.). This was in the days when studios also owned movie theaters – which would all change in the 1950s. So Paramount was usually interested in the most urbane movie genres, closely followed by MGM which also made many musicals. Warner Brothers specialized in urban stories and crime. RKO specialized in musicals, westerns, and then film noir. Along with the studio’s financial capabilities, this set the general tone for the costuming of the studio’s productions. But it was the studio’s head costume designer that set the style.

A devoted movie watcher of the 1930s with an eye for fashion, as the female audience had, would soon recognize the stylistic elements of their favorite designers. The broad-shouldered gown with an asymmetrical design in bold black and white contrasts was likely designed by Adrian for an MGM movie. The light colored floor length dress with the strong collar and cuff design feature was certainly an Orry-Kelly design for a Warner Brothers movie. And that sparkling beaded gown trimmed in fur had to be a Travis Banton number for Paramount. The studios publicized their designers, and they were household names during the heyday of the 1930s and 1940s. Newspapers regularly covered film fashion as part of the publicity for a film, as well as what the stars wore and which costume designer was responsible, all as part of a film’s publicity. Fan magazines like Photoplay, Screenland, Movie Mirror, and others regularly carried articles about what film fashions and costumes the stars would be wearing and what tips on dressing the costume designers had for the average woman. In the 1930s through the 1950s, print media was the dominant form of advertizing and promotion, and the combination of print and still photography was used to sell movies by promoting the look of the movie stars. This meant an emphasis on fashion and costumes, and since the female audience had been found to make most of the decisions on which movie showings to attend, women were specifically targeted by emphasizing the importance of costuming in film.

The contemporary movies, those depicting the times when the movie was released, were those where the studios could produce the most publicity about the fashions worn by the stars on-screen. Accordingly, men and women wore the fashions of the day, at least of the day when the movie was made. Since fashion trends change so quickly, classic Hollywood always had a potential problem with its contemporary movies. Even in the heyday of the factory system, it took a number of months between the time costumes were designed and when the film was released. During those months a new style could be launched, or a current style could become passé. This happened in 1929 when the popular irregular-length, handkerchief-hemmed dress was suddenly demoded when Jean Patou introduced the long skirt. Movies featuring the former looked out of fashion, and some had to be re-edited with actresses filmed from the waist up. This happened relatively early in Hollywood’s history, but from then on the studio moguls decided they would employ the best costume designers they could find, and would emphasize a classic Hollywood style of fashion, but one that took full advantage of the sex appeal of their roster of stars and starlets In the 1930s, the iconic look of Hollywood glamour was thus developed by costume designers Adrian, Travis Banton, and others. This was done out of a need for that timeless style, but using a combination of new couture techniques of bias-cut dressmaking with luxurious fabrics like silk satin for form-fitting gowns worn by stars like Jean Harlow ,Joan Crawford, and Carole Lombard. And the costume designers not only designed the look of glamour, but the simple-but-elegant styles that women aspired to, as well as the casual outdoor styles and bathing suits popular in California. In Hollywood’s Golden Age, American woman looked to movies for their fashion cues, and women across the world did too.

The costume on exhibit worn by Myrna Loy in I Love You Again, shows elements of the classic Hollywood style and serves as an example. Its design is credited in the film to MGM designer Dolly Tree, but it could easily have been designed by Adrian. It is a classic Grecian-style Hollywood night gown, with a shoulder emphasis with beading and metal decoration that Adrian had favored throughout the 1930s and 1940s. Its neckline plunges to reveal enough décolletage to be sexy, with slit sleeves and a cinched waist construction to heighten the curves of the figure. This is a gown that could have been worn in almost any time period. The same can be said of Barbara Stanwyck’s gown from Titanic, designed by Dorothy Jeakins. The sleek gunmetal sheath with a train could be worn on any red carpet today. Two other dresses in the exhibition show the evolution of film fashion and the influence of fashion on Hollywood costume. In Having a Wonderful Crime, Carole Landis wears a suit designed by Edward Stevenson from the RKO Studio released in 1945. Its broad shouldered look was still very much in fashion. It was not just an influence of World War II, but a style made popular in film since Adrian designed Joan Crawford’s costumes in the early 1930s. The large white lapels serve the classic film costume function of framing the face, then and now still the most important part of an actress. But popularity of wide shoulders was coming to an end with the introduction of the New Look that came from Christian Dior beginning in late 1947. The New Look took a few years to grab hold in Hollywood, but by 1952 and through the mid-50s, it was the pre-dominant look of the age, made popular by Elizabeth Taylor through her costume designs by Helen Rose. Lucille Ball’s dress in The Long Long Trailer shows the New Look silhouette: the cinched waist, usually needing a corset, the sloped shoulders, and a very full and long skirt, the skirt made full by wearing petticoats.

The costume designers became important figures at their home studios. They were publicized almost as much as the stars – think of Edith Head in her heyday. Just as important as their creativity and designing skills, however, was their ability to get along and bond with the temperamental stars they dressed. While not all such relationships worked, the successful ones depended on trust and an understanding between star and designer. In many cases, it was the costume designer that created the “iconic” look the star would have for many years, think of Marilyn Monroe in Travilla’s “subway” dress, or Rita Hayworth in Jean Louis’ “Put the Blame on Mame” gown.

Historical epics would seem to have their own draw on audiences – Biblical tales, sweeping land battles, swashbucklers, stories of knights in armor. But ever since the early days of Cecil B. DeMille, sex was an important ingredient in the mix, and one that the audience responded to eagerly. One need only look at the ravishing costumes designed by Travis Banton for Claudette Colbert as Cleopatra (1934) to understand the appeal. The costume designers understood full well that the audience came to see an actress or actor they recognized, not one lost in a costume, and preferably a costume that still showed off some of their sex appeal. And more, that the costumes had to be part of the spectacle of the movie. Costume designers were ever-challenged in designing period films. They had to make the costumes accurate enough to convey a true sense of historical times, yet they were constricted by time, an always tight budget, modern viewing tastes, and the impracticality of costuming the principal cast, and scores or even hundreds of extras. The demands of the producer, director and often the lead stars were another matter. Their demands were usually how sexy could they make the lead actress or featured starlet. Some designers were especially strong at designing period costumes. Walter Plunkett was one in particular, having designed Little Women, Mary of Scotland, Gone with the Wind, Green Dolphin Street, Raintree County, and Diane, among others. Plunkett did his research, but he half jokingly said he liked doing historical films because the directors were seldom knowledgeable enough to argue with him about the costumes.

The studios kept their own inventories of fabrics, and they ordered from fabric suppliers just the same as garment manufacturers. Nonetheless, period fabrics were largely unobtainable for all but a few accent pieces such as antique lace. Thus the look of period fabrics had to be duplicated with contemporary samples. This extended to creating embroideries, cut-metal work, and jewelry decorations. The latter were duplicated in semi-precious stones and rhinestones. Often fabrics were hand-painted. At MGM, several of the dresses in Marie-Antoinette had their flowers hand-painted on the fabric. Walter Plunkett hand-painted the roses on Katharine Hepburn’s period dress in RKO’s Quality Street. And during World War II when many fabrics were unobtainable, the popular large floral-print dresses were hand-painted at Paramount.  Feathers and furs were usually not a problem at the time, compared to today, although eagle feathers were protected in the U.S. even in the 1930s. For many period films, crinoline hoop skirts needed to be made at the studios, as well as the bustles that became fashionable later. In this case, at MGM, Wardrobe had the Metal Shop fabricate hoops of metal rather than using the historically accurate whalebone hoops. The metal hoops were then connected by vertical fabric tapes. Men’s period costumes for depicting the days of the Roman Empire provided the look of authenticity by frequently employing similar methods of fabrication for plated or chased metal chest armor, leather straps, chin guards and metal helmets – these for the principal actors. The larger studios like MGM had their own cobblers and leather workers that could make sandals and whatever leather gear was needed. Prop armor was stored at the studios and used repeatedly for extras in the films. Rental houses like Western Costume could provide the smaller studios with costumes for their legions. At MGM they also had a complete Art Department where architects and designers could design whatever was needed, along with a studio research library. If the director needed a medieval sword and scabbard from a certain period, he only needed to ask for it. And since the studio basically ran around the clock, the library, art department, leather and metal workers were likely to have it available to him the next day.

The look of opulence so desirable in many period films was achieved by using rich velvets, silks, brocades, and finely worked embroidered fabric. Furs were plentiful, including genuine ermine used by the royal houses of Europe. While sheer fabrics like mousseline, souffle, and chiffon weren’t available centuries ago, in the Golden Age they provided an extra measure of allure to that décolleté toga that fine cotton just couldn’t capture. The bust was always an area of costume that betrayed the accuracy of period costume, and this was not by accident. And it was not just that more cleavage was desired in a costume, since under the days of strict enforcement of the Production Code (1934-1966), virtually no cleavage was allowed to be shown, which certainly was not the case in some historical periods, it was the line and cut of the poitrine itself. For many film costumes of the 1860s through the 1910s, the answer was to place a basically contemporary top with some period trim on a long period skirt. Indeed, the look of the monobosom from the turn-of-the-century would not have looked natural on the stars of the 1940s and 50s.

The process of designing costumes was fairly standard in the larger studios by 1930. By then each studio had a head designer, and some had more than one costume designer on staff. MGM had several costume designers, including two that only designed men’s costumes. The Wardrobe Department was usually headed by a manager with garment making experience; although the designer supervised the making of the costumes they designed (this usually extended to supervising the head cutter and fitter).Several seamstresses were on staff as well as a tailor or two. Beaders were there to do the embroideries although often these were employed as needed for extra work on the big movies. The larger studios like MGM and Paramount had dyers, cobblers, and milliners. All studios kept their just-made costumes to be re-used for later productions, or even rented out to other studios. At its peak, MGM had several hundred thousand costumes in storage. The process began for the designer when they got the script. Already divided into scenes, they would need to determine the personality and character of the actor or actress, their ambitions, and the plot, the locale and time period, the time of day and what costume would be appropriate for the scene. Each scene may need a different costume (but not necessarily) called a “change” or “costume change.”  The script would thus be divided into costume changes for each actress or actor in the movie.

While the process was fairly standard in the major studios, each designer had his or her own method of designing. All costume designers would need a costume sketch since this is what was needed to show the producer, director and the star to get their approvals before fabrication. Some designers like Adrian did all their own sketches (they were really watercolor illustrations), while other designers used sketch artists to produce them. Some of the designers could illustrate well but no longer had the time to do so, like Walter Plunkett after he got to MGM, and some sketch artists became designers themselves. Some designers preferred draping fabric on models until they had an idea, and then had a sketch artist illustrate their design, or some made rough designs in pencil.  Adrian never wanted anyone else involved in his design process, not even sketch artists.  Helen Rose started out sketching her own designs but quickly turned to a sketch artists when she could, and Walter Plunkett also used a sketch artist at MGM.

The costume sketch itself had to illustrate what the costume would look like, and was rendered in color, often with small vignette sketches of the back or of a detail, and with fabric swatches attached. The latter have usually been lost over the years. The back of the sketches would often record the budget expended for the piece and sometimes the number of hours spent, and with who worked on it in the Wardrobe Department.

Once sketches were approved by the director and producer, they were turned over to the person who would cut the patterns, variously called the head cutter and fitter or fitter. This was the most skilled person in wardrobe, generally supervising the seamstresses and embroiderers, Wardrobe also had specialists like fabric dyers or painters. The head cutter and fitter would translate a sketch into pattern pieces and then cut the selected fabric in like shapes. The muslin patterns were first assembled onto dress forms custom sized to the actress’s measurements. Then the selected fabric was cut into like shapes and was sewn by the seamstresses, with any embroidery or special decoration done by the specialists. The first and subsequent fitting with the actress was attended to by the designer and fitter. This was always a special occasion, and could be fraught with anxiety. The best cases occurred when designer and actress had worked together before, and understood each other, knowing that they both wanted the actress to look her best, or be convincing in the role she played. First meetings could also come off badly, as mistrust, very late arrivals, or obvious shows of power could turn a fitting into a brusk and even ugly occasion. Some serious problems occurred just getting the sketches approved by the actress. For Cleopatra, Claudette Colbert thought Travis Banton’s costume sketches too sexy and revealing. She rejected two sets outright. Banton warned her that she had better accept his third set of sketches, which he stayed up until midnight at the Paramount studio producing. When she rejected those too Banton was furious. He left the studio in a huff. Always a hard drinker, he went to Palm Springs on a binge. Studio head Adolph Zukor had to call him to get him back to work, saying Colbert would accept his final designs.⃰  But the obvious marvels that were created in Golden Age Hollywood prove that designers and stars worked as a team, often forming tight and lasting friendships. Even more, it was the costume designers themselves that were largely responsible for creating that iconic image that the movie stars possessed throughout their career. After the studio system came to an end, generally by 1970, although its demise started earlier, long-term contract costume designers and others trades were no longer used. Movie actors still wear costumes, but the system for designing and procuring them has changed significantly since the “Golden Age.” Today they can still beseen and enjoyed on big screens and small.

copyright Christian Esquevin

22 thoughts on “Hollywood Movie Costumes”

  1. Hi Christian:

    I have a Joan Crawford Adrienne that was given to me by collector Bill Thomas before he passed. The still that accompanied it was destroyed in an apartment flood and I have been unable to replicate it. It is from one of the less popular films of hers but it was shown on screen. Any clue where I can find stills from those films? I am ready to sell it to someone who will display it. I don’t have the room. Most likely late 30’s early 40s based on the design

    1. Are you looking for an original still or just a copy you can use for reference? IMDB has several images from the film I Dream of Love that includes Joan Crawford in her various costumes. If you live in the LA area
      the Academy’s Margaret Herrick Library has a huge collection of MGM photos that would likely include one you would be interested in. They can make digital copies that are very good for a charge, You would have to call to see if they are open now. Sometimes you can get lucky and find them on ebay also, both originals and copies.

    1. Hi Maree, When the film itself does not credit a designer it is very difficult to find out who may have designed the costumes, especially for a low-budget production company like Tower. They appear to
      have only produced a few films between 1932 and 1934. The two leading crediting sources do not give a designer credit for Discarded Lovers. It is likely that the gown(s) were sourced at Western Costume Company, that the star wore her own wardrobe, or that it was bought at a leading department store that carried designer gowns. Christian

  2. Hi, my name is Melissa Marlow Reid and I have two large colored Hollywood sketches from around the 1930’s or 40’s that belonged to my Grandmother. I had them professionally matted and framed about 20 years ago along with their original handwritten cards depicting the outfit description and the actressess. One is Ginger Rogers and the other is Irene Dunn. How do I further value and appraise these or are they not highly sought after? Thanks for any information.

    1. Hi Melissa. You can check for the sales records of costume sketches at some of the auction houses such that usually carry sketches such as Profiles in History, Julien’s, Bonham’s, or Heritage. Check specifically for their Entertainment auctions. You can also Google Costume sketches and see examples. I don’t know of a specific appraiser for costume sketches. If you are interested in selling, you can contact me at c.esquevin@gmail.com

  3. Hello Christian, March 9, 2021
    I initially met you in 2008 at the SD History Center when you gave your talk on your new book, “Adrian: Silver Screen to Custom Label.” You penned such a lovely tribute to my grandmother, Ann Susnow who sewed the couture line for Adrian, Ltd. from 1941-1952. I also spoke to you briefly at the Coronado Library, and I appreciated the time you took to speak to me upon my spontaneous visit. I moved 1.5 yrs. ago to NYC to attend graduate in fashion history, textiles and museum practice. I am writing to you now because I’d like some information or suggestion for resources. I have all 3 books on Adrian. I am trying to find specific information on the fabrics, embellishments, costume constructions for the films Wild Orchids (1929) and Lady of the Tropics (1939). I really need to know the degree of historical accuracy for these Asian-inspired costumes. I have found information for Mata Hari (1931) from your book. I know Hollywood’s priority was not complete hist. accuracy but it was a balancing act. I know for the film, Marie Antoinette, Adrian went to Europe, etc. and studied, but took artistic license for filming, relevancy to fan base, etc.
    I read that Garbo’s gold costume in Wild Orchids was a “princess gown” but then in one of the archival movie magazine it labelled it a “Javanese bridal gown.” Do you have info? Does this costume still exist? Any of the Mata Hari costumes survived via auction? I found an image for Lady of the Tropics gold costume and headdress. Has this costume survived? I have to discuss these costumes in the context of a sociological theory (i.e. Semiotics) for a class presentation in 2 wks. My thesis will be different. I will be looking at the effects of embellishment and adornment (jewelry) on the “embodiment” of film costumes from a phenomenological and dress, body & identity perspectives.
    Lastly, on a Joseff of Hollywood FB page, someone told me Adrian designed some of the jewelry for his films, although Joseff made the jewelry. I cannot find that FB, so do you know which films or do you know of a sources that would have that information?
    I saw on this blog a few days ago an article on “fabrics and beading” of costumes. I cannot find it. Do you have the title?
    My apologies for this very long post, but I don’t know hw to reach you personally. I did have your library email, but I know you retired in 2019. I hope you get this post and can help me out. Please let me know if you have an alternative email that would be okay to contact you. Thank-you for your time.

    1. Hi Karen, Sorry for my delay in responding. I have been writing another book so I haven’t been checking the comments as often as I should. My email is c1esquevin@gmail.com Please email me with the information you still need,
      I haven’t see that the Adrian Garbo costumes you mentioned have come up for auction or mentioned in any collection, so I don’t think they survived. Outside of indicating jewelry in his costume sketches, I haven’t seen any evidence of Adrian actually designing jewelry. I don’t believe Adrian ever travelled to Asia so I believe his research was done through books and pictures, which the studios were well stocked with in their libraries. The “Pagoda” shoulders used for Garbo’s and Hedy’s costumes were based on actual models but I don’t know about the rest of the costumes. Glad to hear of your studies. Thanks for contacting me and I hope I can help. Best Christian

  4. When movies began more and more to be shot on location, ho did the wardrobe department operate? Were there trailers etc. as there are today or did they have to rent a building near the shoot to dress the artists and extras?

    1. Thanks for your inquiry. That depends on the case. The earlier films like The Ten Commandments (1956) had some sostume made in the U.S and shipped and some others made on location (Egypt). Tents were used back then for the crew. In many cases in the 1960s and beyond as the studio system was falling apart movies were made on location in Europe because they were cheaper, and costumes were designed and made by local wardrobe personnel.Trailers are common now because (pre-Covid) almost everything is made on location.

  5. Hi Christian,

    I have been reading the articles at Silver Screen Modes with great interest and gaining some more insight into the inner workings of the costume and wardrobe departments during the Golden Age.

    Like Andy Scholl in an earlier comment here, I too am doing a bit of family research. It turns out that my late father’s maternal grandmother (my great grandmother) moved to Los Angeles from the Midwest in the 1910s. By September 1937, she had purportedly “made the wardrobe for the actresses” in the film Lost Horizon and was beginning work on a new Janet Gaynor film. I think that film may have been Three Loves Has Nancy, although it could have been The Young in Heart. Less likely, due to the date, is A Star Is Born.

    The only other information I know about her career is that she worked for MGM in some capacity for a time, and she was “a successful modiste in the film capital where she operates her shop in her own home and also sews quite a lot for studios as well as for the stars of motion pictures.”

    Her name was Miss Ada Puterbaugh. I suspect she was one of many uncredited seamstresses working for the studios in those days.

    Besides consulting with Motion Picture Costumers, as you suggested to Andy, do you happen to know if ledger books still exist that might show contract jobs to seamstresses or shops on films? Did the studios do a lot of outsourcing or did they generally do everything internally? It would be great to find something tangible about her contribution to film wardrobe.

    Thank you!


    1. Hi Mike,
      Thanks for your question. It’s great to have a great-grandmother that was part of the industry. The wardrobe workers produced the costumes that were such a great part of the glamour
      and characterization of the movies. Unfortunately, they received no or very rare credits for any of their work. And although the large studios kept a regular corps of seamstresses, cutterfitters, and beaders,
      many wardrobe workers were hired and let go as the demand waxed and waned. Western Costume Company also did a lot of contract work for the studios. They are still in business but I doubt they have employee records that far back as they have changed ownership several times. MGM’s employment records are the hardest to track since they are, as far as I know, in Atlanta. I’m doing research for a book so if I find
      her name I will let you know.

      1. Christian,
        Thank you for the information and keeping an eye out for her name during your research. Unfortunately, the Motion Picture Costumers informed me that she isn’t in their member database. This really doesn’t surprise me, since I get the impression she did freelance work.

  6. My mother’s Aunt, Emma Sharp, (married name, un-known) was a Costume Designer for MGM Studio’s, in the 1920’s or 30’s; not sure…She donated several costumes, she designed, to our Theatre Arts classes… to be used On-Stage for various plays. Wanting to follow in her trade, I entered the Apparel Design Classes at *Glendale College, in Glendale, CA. *I am an Artist, who designed, made patterns. cut fabric, sewed, and wore the design. We may not ever be able to track her….

    1. Thanks for your comment about your mother’s Aunt. Perhaps she was there later than the 1920s-1930s? Anyway her name, even her first name of Emma does not sound familiar. Perhaps she worked in Wardrobe before she became a designer?
      That’s great that you followed in her footsteps, congratulations.

  7. Hello-

    Can you kindly tell me if the dresses worn by Grace Kelly in the 1955 movie, “To Catch a Thief” are part of your costume archive at Paramount?
    Specifically, the white wrap gown and the blue chiffon gown. If not, are they part of a collection that you may now where they are located now?
    This would be helpful information for us to know.

    Thank you,

    Tracey Slosse

  8. Hi,
    My great-grandfather worked in costumes at Warner Brothers in the late 20s and 30s, his specialty was European military uniforms. I’m surprised he didn’t work on women’s clothing because he worked in Paris and Nice for Redfern at the turn of the century/Belle Epoque before he brought his family to Los Angeles in 1920 (via Toronto where they lived for a decade). I’m doing family research and would love to learn what films he worked on, or even when he was at Warner Brothers exactly. I’ve asked them but they apparently no longer have a company historian/archivist. I was wondering if you had any ideas to pursue, ie maybe a guild or a union that he could’ve been a member of? Thanks in advance for any help you might provide, and I love your site.

    1. Hi Andy. It was a shame that in the Golden Age of Hollywood, film credits were not given to Wardrobe workers (or many others crafts people). So it is difficult or impossible to research who worked on what movie.
      You might consult with the Motion Picture Costumers (https://www.motionpicturecostumers.org/about-us ) a union of wardrobe/costume makers or handlers. They began in 1937. I know that unions began earlier in the 1930s in the studios but I can’t find an earlier costumer or designer guild or union. If I can find any other reference to your great-grandfather, I’ll reply to your email.

    1. Hi Joe. I’m afraid there is no regular appraiser od Hollywood costumes. The auction houses that have entertainment auctions, Profiles in History, Julien, Heritage, do their own appraising. General appraisers look at past “comparables” to derive an appraisal. Condition matters much. Identifying is based on much research and that is usually left to the owner to make a basic claim that the garment is such and such. Most of that should be based on provenance. Try to find auction catalogues, many of them are on the Internet.

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A blog about classic movie costume design and fashion